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The second theory, sometimes called the "Citizen-Temple Community", proposes that the Exodus story was composed to serve the needs of a post-exilic Jewish community organised around the Temple, which acted in effect as a bank for those who belonged to it. "General problems of studying the text of the bible...".
The history of the Exodus story stretches back some two hundred years before the achievement of its current form, to a point in the late 7th century BCE when various oral and written traditions were drawn together into written works which were the fore-runners of the Torah we know today.
A few of the names at the start of the itinerary, including Ra'amses, Pithom and Succoth, are reasonably well identified with archaeological sites on the eastern edge of the Nile Delta, as is Kadesh-Barnea, where the Israelites spend 38 years after turning back from Canaan; other than these, very little is certain.
The crossing of the Red Sea has been variously placed at the Pelusic branch of the Nile, anywhere along the network of Bitter Lakes and smaller canals that formed a barrier toward eastward escape, the Gulf of Suez (south-southeast of Succoth), and the Gulf of Aqaba (south of Ezion-Geber), or even on a lagoon on the Mediterranean coast. Exodus in the Jewish Experience: Echoes and Reverberations.
It has been claimed that their southern contemporaries Isaiah and Micah show no knowledge of an Exodus, however, this is incorrect. In Levy, Thomas E.; Schneider, Thomas; Propp, William H. Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience. Berossos and Manetho, Introduced and Translated: Native Traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt.
the memory of Egyptian oppression, for example, may be based on the harsh treatment of Canaanites inside Canaan during those centuries in the 2nd millennium when the region was ruled by Egypt: these memories could later have been transferred to Egypt itself, and a new exodus story created. Giving the Sense: Understanding and Using Old Testament Historical Texts.
A historical Moses associated with a small group may have been later generalised into the savior of Israel, while others have found echoes of the descent into Egypt and the Exodus in the history of the Hyksos, who were Canaanite rulers of the Egyptian Delta in the 16th century BCE.
Hoffmeier, continue to discuss the historicity, or at least plausibility, of the story, arguing that the Egyptian records have been lost or suppressed or that the fleeing Israelites left no archaeological trace or that the large numbers are mistranslated, the majority have abandoned the investigation as "a fruitless pursuit".
According to Exodus –38, the Israelites numbered "about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides women and children", plus many non-Israelites and livestock. "Egyptology and the traditions of early Hebrew antiquity (Genesis and Exodus)".
1 Kings 6:1 places the event 480 years before the construction of Solomon's Temple, implying an Exodus at c.